The 2011 Darfur Peace Agreement, also known as the Doha Agreement, was signed in July 2011 between the government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement. This agreement established a compensation fund for victims of the Darfur conflict, allowed the President of Sudan to appoint a Vice-President from Darfur, and established a new Darfur Regional Authority to oversee the region until a referendum can determine its permanent status within the Republic of Sudan. The agreement also provided for power sharing at the national level: movements that sign the agreement will be entitled to nominate two ministers and two four ministers of state at the federal level and will be able to nominate 20 members to the national legislature. The movements will be entitled to nominate two state governors in the Darfur region.
The relatively tranquil setting of Darfur was profoundly disrupted during the 1980s by the prolonged drought which has persisted with only minor interruptions since 1967. The ensuing famine has resulted in unprecedented mass population movement, impoverishment and destitution of the inhabitants of the affected arid and semi-arid zones. This has had a dramatic effect on low and high intensity armed conflict. In this respect, Darfur has become one of the worst distressed regions in the country as well as the one most affected by the compound problems of environmental degradation and prolonged armed conflict.
The Struggle between Farmers and Nomads
Settled farmers and pastoralist nomads are ''causally'' interlocked in a complex solidarity/strife relationship with each other. They exercise mutual solidarity in times of normal hardship, but in times of severe hardship,
When bodily survival is literally at stake, they engage in violent combat. The prolonged drought has dealt a severe blow to the tradition and spirit of cooperation and tolerance between herders and farmers in the Darfur. Fuelled by presences of the existing conflict between government of Sudan and the armed movements and the influx of modern weapons, skirmishes turned into large-scale armed conflict. On both sides of the conflict divide, people have fall back to their time honored, traditional group solidarity and reciprocity. Additionally, in the past those in distresses simply moved. However, this ''exit option'' is increasingly being hampered by an expanding population, large-scale mechanized farming, political and ethnic tensions and a general worsening of the
Environmental situation. Increasingly, both farmers and nomads are abandoning their homelands and move to urban centers, where food is in greater abundance and physical security is relatively better maintained
- Al Massar has the following objectives regarding peace:
- Assessment of social, economic, ecological and cultural situation of nomadic societies.
- To decelerate the tide of ecological conflict in Darfur (Farmers vs. Nomads, Nomads vs. Nomads & lawlessness).
- To reduce the impact of resource conflict on communities in Darfur.
- To tackle root causes of ecological conflict i.e. resource scarcity.
o Raised the awareness of the nomads in Darfur about Peace building, tolerance and humanrights.
o Held training in Peace Building and Gender Issues for more than 250 women, men and youth in Khartoum (Dar Al salam – West of Omdurman).
o Prepared, produced and broadcast Radio programs to disseminate peace culture.
o Organized and held sports, cultural and artistic events to establish peace culture.