Sudan is a one of Agricultural country that contributes to the national income by 30.6%(Annual report 2015-Central bank of sudan) . 90% of the livestock comes from traditional sector (nomadic people), Almassar organization work primarily with nomads whose profession grazing, Almassar organization works to serve the nomadic communities in most states of Sudan (Darfur, Kordofan, White Nile ,Blue Nile and eastern Sudan)which have Primary productivity of Agriculture and Livestock.
FSL and Nomadic people :
According to Sudan Fifth Population Census stated that; the total number of nomadic households in Sudan is 514709 HHs (7.7%) , (35.4%) of the nomadic population are engaged in cultivation/plantation (nomads usually practice rain- fed agriculture during the rainy season and mostly for their own consumption), 60% of the HHs produce cereals, 23% oil seeds, 2% legumes and 2% produce vegetables . (90%) are engaged in animal husbandry and (1.5%) are engaged in almost all Sudan trade in camels originates in Butana, Northern Kordofan and Northern Darfur, Furthermore 75% and 90% of the country wealth in cattle and sheep respectively are owned by thenomads of the savannah and semi- desert zone.
The sustainable development goals for 2030 indicates: Nopoverty, Zero hunger, decent and economic growth; are refer to FSL intervention, Almassar Organization working in this issues through it project to serve nomadic communities.
Almassar main contribution in FSL sector:
- Agriculture (distribution of crop and vegetable seeds, distribution of agricultural tool, homed garden training)
- Livestock.(vaccination , CAHWs training ,restocking , animal husbandry training)
- Open fire lines
- Development and maintaining pastures
- income generation activities (such as cheese making and improved stoves )
- Vocational and Skills Training.
Threats of food security:
There are many factors that affect food security such as EL-NINO; the potential impact of EL-NINO on livestock in Sudan may occur:
- Rainfall shortages, delays and intermittent dry spells throughout the rainy season have increased the likelihood of livestock losses and intercommoned conflicts among herding communities.
- Losses will increase food insecurity among vulnerable sheep, cattle and camel farming families in affectedareas by reducing their access to meat and milk, as well as income to meet their basic needs.
- increased risk of deteriorating livestock body conditions, disruptions and changes in seasonal livestock migration patterns, and increase the risk of crop destruction by livestock ,all these led to eruption of resource-based conflicts in eastern, central, and western Sudan .
- Impacts could extend into dry season when pasture and water are normally very limited, which could lead already weakened livestock to suffer increased morbidity and mortality, further threatening the livelihoods of vulnerable pastoral families, especially among the poorest.
- Where water points are empty or nearing empty, many livestock owners, especially cattle owners, will be obliged to transport water by tankers for their animals; however, this option is unavailable for many smallholder pastoralists due to the cost involved.
- Irregular livestock movements have already been observed in Kassala, West Darfur, South Darfur and North Darfur: Changes to migration patterns could lead to crop destruction by livestock, particularly in the states with partially blocked migratory routes.
- Conflicts over scarce water and pasture resources could also aggravate recurring conflicts between and within migratory pastoral communities themselves.
- The use of shallow wells for watering livestock will further depleting local water availability for humans, with have additional and multiple adverse effects on both local residents and livestock.
- Overconcentration of livestock in safe haven places due to bad rains or insecurity could possibly be implicated in the outbreaks of Tran boundary Animal Diseases (TADs), as well as increased livestock morbidities and mortality, which threaten the food and nutrition security of rural communities.
- Overconcentration of livestock also poses significant threats to already fragile ecosystem, which can further undermine the productive agricultural and pastoral capacity of affected localities.
- Sharp declines in livestock prices have been observed in Kassala, Gedaref and Blue Nile states: Where herders are motivated to sell live animals en masse, lower livestock prices will undermine small-scale herders’ capacity to use the income to meet their families’ basic needs, especially when coupled with the potential for increasing food prices.
- An increased demand for sorghum for animal feed could cause prices to increase sharply over the coming period, which will have direct and adverse implications on the food security of vulnerable families facing food shortages and limited income for buying food.